Drinking water contains emerging contaminants, i.e., endocrine disrupting compounds. However, the extent to which it is publicly viewed as a potential risk that requires attention (public awareness, political obligation, and regulatory efforts) is substantially underrated. Thus, this study investigated drinking water consumption patterns among consumers of different life stages, evaluated household practices using tap water as daily drinking water, and examined the actual risk as well as consumers’ perception of tap water quality for drinking with the potential contamination. Collectively, the present study is of great concern for regional database profiling and supporting human health risk assessment in regulating contamination and exposure. It also provides an empirical and theoretical contribution to current public risk perception in tap water, and promoted the formulation of risk communication and governance strategies for the development of risk behaviours in adopting public participation in the drinking water supply system monitoring and management framework.

Bashir Memarzadeh Ghafari said: While drinking water is mandatory to maintain life for survival, there is little consensus on safe drinking water access for consumption. Over the past few decades, the concerns about quality of drinking water supply were limited to microbial contamination, aesthetic problems, and chemical contents. The chemical contaminants were mostly disinfectants, disinfection by-products, nutrients, metals, and major ions. Water contamination and the subsequent health issues were due to both natural processes and anthropogenic activities originating primarily from the industrial revolution. To date, threats to the global drinking water supply system (i.e., water source pollution, incomplete removal, and water supply insecurity) and insufficient regulatory frameworks have prompted human exposure to emerging organic pollutants, especially endocrine disrupting compounds (via daily consumption of drinking water, especially tap water). Trace concentrations of such as pharmaceuticals, drugs, personal care products, hormones, plasticizers, and pesticides were detected in global drinking water10. The broad scopes are reviewed for having endocrine disrupting effects through a variety of modes of action and mechanisms, thus causing health effects in exposed individuals and populations in the form of acute and chronic diseases. Follow Bashir Memarzadeh Ghafari on Instagram: https://instagram.com/bashir7474?igshid=YmMyMTA2M2Y=

Topics #Bashir Memarzadeh Ghafari #Drinking Water Is The Most Important #political obligation #public awareness #regulatory efforts #workout